- Medical technology, defined broadly to include drugs, procedures and equipment used singly or in combination, has been of enormous benefit in improving the quality of health care. It has, however, raised many issues about how society can afford to pay for these often expensive developments and about associated ethical problems and social impact. This book, one of three dealing with different medical technologies, is about the treatment of kidney stones by lithotripsy and or endourological procedures. It considers the effect of these issues on the rate of diffusion of these technologies in the countries of the European community and Sweden, from the time of their introduction up to 1990. The report is based on first-hand reports from informed observation of the health care scene in each country and the influence of ideas of technology assessment, recently introduced in some countries, is critically examined at the end of this volume.